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 – Unsupervised Learning –

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Unsupervised learning is a type of machine learning that looks for previously undetected patterns in a data set with no pre-existing labels and with a minimum of human supervision. In contrast to supervised learning that usually makes use of human-labeled data, unsupervised learning, also known as self-organization allows for modeling of probability densities over inputs. It forms one of the three main categories of machine learning, along with supervised and reinforcement learning. Semi-supervised learning, a related variant, makes use of supervised and unsupervised techniques.
Two of the main methods used in unsupervised learning are principal component and cluster analysis. Cluster analysis is used in unsupervised learning to group, or segment, datasets with shared attributes in order to extrapolate algorithmic relationships. Cluster analysis is a branch of machine learning that groups the data that has not been labelled, classified or categorized. Instead of responding to feedback, cluster analysis identifies commonalities in the data and reacts based on the presence or absence of such commonalities in each new piece of data. This approach helps detect anomalous data points that do not fit into either group.

The only requirement to be called an unsupervised learning strategy is to learn a new feature space that captures the characteristics of the original space by maximizing some objective function or minimising some loss function. Therefore, generating a covariance matrix is not unsupervised learning, but taking the eigenvectors of the covariance matrix is because the linear algebra eigendecomposition operation maximizes the variance; this is known as principal component analysis.[3] Similarly, taking the log-transform of a dataset is not unsupervised learning, but passing input data through multiple sigmoid functions while minimising some distance function between the generated and resulting data is, and is known as an Autoencoder.


Some use cases for unsupervised learning — more specifically, clustering — include: Customer segmentation, or understanding different customer groups around which to build marketing or other business strategies. Genetics, for example clustering DNA patterns to analyze evolutionary biology.


Another great example of supervised learning is text classification problems. In this set of problems, the goal is to predict the class label of a given piece of text. One particularly popular topic in text classification is to predict the sentiment of a piece of text, like a tweet or a product review.

In Supervised learning, you train the machine using data which is well “labeled.” … For example, Baby can identify other dogs based on past supervised learning. Regression and Classification are two types of supervised machine learning techniques. Clustering and Association are two types of Unsupervised learning.

This is one of the most well-known applications of Supervised Learning because most of us use it in our day-to-day lives. BioInformatics is the storage of Biological Information of us humans such as fingerprints, iris texture, earlobe and so on.






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