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– Artificial intelligence ǍǏ –
In computer science, artificial intelligence (AI), sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans. Leading AI textbooks define the field as the study of “intelligent agents”: any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. Colloquially, the term “artificial intelligence” is often used to describe machines (or computers) that mimic “cognitive” functions that humans associate with the human mind, such as “learning” and “problem solving”.
As machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered to require “intelligence” are often removed from the definition of AI, a phenomenon known as the AI effect. A quip in Tesler’s Theorem says “AI is whatever hasn’t been done yet.” For instance, optical character recognition is frequently excluded from things considered to be AI, having become a routine technology. Modern machine capabilities generally classified as AI include successfully understanding human speech, competing at the highest level in strategic game systems (such as chess and Go), autonomously operating cars, intelligent routing in content delivery networks, and military simulations.
latin capital letter a with caron
A caron (/ˈkærən/), háček or haček (/ˈhɑːtʃɛk/ or /ˈheɪtʃɛk/; plural háčeks or háčky) also known as a hachek, wedge, check, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, flying bird, is a diacritic (ˇ) commonly placed over certain letters in the orthography of some Baltic, Slavic, Finnic, Samic, Berber, and other languages to indicate a change in the related letter’s pronunciation (c > č; [ts] > [tʃ]).
The use of the caron differs according to the orthographic rules of a language. In most Slavic and European languages it indicates present or historical palatalization, iotation, or postalveolar articulation. In Salishan languages, it often represents a uvular consonant (x vs. x̌ ; [x] vs. [χ])
When placed over vowels symbols, the caron can indicate a contour tone, for instance the falling and then rising tone in the Pinyin romanization of Mandarin Chinese.
It is also used to decorate symbols in mathematics, where it is often pronounced /ˈtʃɛk/ (“check”).
It looks similar to a breve (˘), but has a sharp tip, like an inverted circumflex (ˆ), while a breve is rounded.