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– ii-V-I Progression –


The ii–V–I progression (“two-five-one progression”) (occasionally referred to as ii–V–I turnaround, and ii–V–I) is a common cadential chord progression used in a wide variety of music genres, including jazz harmony. It is a succession of chords whose roots descend in fifths from the second degree (supertonic) to the fifth degree (dominant), and finally to the tonic. In a major key, the supertonic triad (ii) is minor, and in a minor key it is diminished. The dominant is, in its normal form, a major triad and commonly a dominant seventh chord. With the addition of chord alterations, substitutions, and extensions, limitless variations exist on this simple formula.

The ii–V–I progression is “a staple of virtually every type of  popular music”, including jazz, R&B, pop, rock, and country. Examples include “Honeysuckle Rose” (1928), which, “features several bars in which the harmony goes back and forth between the II and V chords before finally resolving on the I chord,” “Satin Doll” (1953), and “If I Fell”




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